Hyphema is the presence of red blood cells in the anterior chamber of the eye (the space between the cornea and the iris). It can occur spontaneously or after certain eye diseases, but the most common cause of hyphema is an ocular trauma. In fact what causes hyphema is the rupture of the blood vessels at the root of the iris (the color of the eye).
• Eye injuries
• Previous intraocular surgery
• It occurs spontaneously Spontaneous
hyphema occurs due to eye diseases that cause the growth of new arteries in the anterior chamber, such as diabetes or neovascular glaucoma. Some congenital ocular disorders can also cause spontaneous hyphema in children.
• Blurred vision
• Eye pain
• Blood inside the eye
If hyphema is caused by a systematic disease that has intraocular manifestations, such as diabetes, the treatment of underlying illness is an essential component of therapeutic measures. An important point in treating any type of hyphema is resting in a half-sitting position which causes to sediment the blood, prevent from the recurrence of bleeding and accelerate the absorption of blood clots. Watching TV and reading is safe. You need to rest at home at least 5 days after surgery. After this period, you can gradually do your daily activities.
Treatment for hyphema is mostly medical, but in certain cases, surgical procedures may also be necessary.
Taking aspirin is not allowed in this period, but acetaminophen can be taken to reduce pain. Take other anticoagulant medications, such as warfarin, should be only diagnosed by your ophthalmologist. It is necessary to prevent any kind of damage to your eye during the recovery period, so it is necessary to put a plastic shield on your affected eye.
The blurred vision caused by hyphema gradually decreases during the treatment period, and if another complication does not occur at the same time, the vision should be restored within two weeks. Increasing intraocular pressure is one of the most dangerous complications of hyphema, which its incidence can range from the beginning of the occurrence of hyphema to even years later, so patients, who once suffered from hyphema, should see their ophthalmologists every few months to measure their intraocular pressure should be measured regularly. It should be noted that increased intraocular pressure is generally not detectable by the patients, and therefore periodic eye examinations are necessary for them. Each time you see your ophthalmologist, be sure to remind your history of hyphema to your ophthalmologist for performing the relevant eye examinations.
If hyphema is severe and blood covers a large part of the anterior chamber, it may cause changes in corneal coloration, which is especially important in children less than 9 years of age due to the risk of amblyopia (lazy eye). So, until the blood sediment inside the eye is completely absorbed, daily eye examinations are recommended. In adults, the incidence of this complication can delay the visual improvement even up to two years. Remember that in the intraocular hemorrage or in other words, in traumatic hyphema, other eye components, such as the pupil, lens, retina and even the optic nerve, may be damaged, thus, in spite of improvement of hyphema, the patient's vision may not improve. In these cases, there may be additional need for additional diagnostic treatments to check for damage.
Patients who once suffered from hyphema should be prevented from any kind of eye injuries in their entire lifetime. For this reason, it is not recommended to continue sports activities that may be associated with blows to the eye (such as martial arts). In addition, the affected eye will always be more sensitive than the healthy eye, and therefore, even a slight blow to the eye, which is previously affected by hyphema, should be considered as an important risk and the eye should be examined as soon as possible.
Finally, it is should be noted again that even after the improvement the acute phase of hyphema, periodic examinations are required for entire lifetime.