The eye is like a ball in which a three-layered tissue surrounds the central cavity containing a jelly-like fluid.

The innermost layer is the retina that receives light and sends images of objects to the brain. The middle layer of the eye, located between the sclera and the retina, is called the uvea. The outer layer of the eye, called the sclera, is a tight-fitting white-eye-colored wall. Uveitis is inflammation of the uvea. Uveitis affects one or both eyes and may also affect other parts of the eye, such as the cornea, scrotum, vitreous, retina, and optic nerve. Uveitis is the main cause of 10% of blindness in the world.


Importance of the Uvea

The uvea includes a large part of the blood vessels (the veins, arteries, and capillaries) that is responsible for blood flow inside the eye. Due to the fact that the uvea bleeds important parts of the eye, such as the retina, its inflammation can lead to visual impairment


Uveitis symptoms The symptoms of uveitis include:

• Light sensitivity

• Blurred vision

• Eye pain

• Floating points in the field of vision

• Redness

Redness of the eye, caused by uveitis, may occur with or without eye pain that results in blurred vision.

If you have eye pain or redness, you need to see an ophthalmologist for eye examination and treatment.


There are several causes for uveitis which the most important ones of them are:


• Viral causes: such as shingles and herpes virus

• Fungal causes: Like histoplasmosis

• Parasitic causes: Like toxoplasmosis

• Diseases that affect other parts of the body, such as collagen-vascular diseases (rheumatic diseases)

• Previous eye injuries


In most cases, the cause of this disease is unknown.


A thorough eye examination done by an ophthalmologist is important to diagnose uveitis. Inflammation of the internal parts of the eye can have a permanent effect on vision and may even lead to blindness in the absence of treatment.

An ophthalmologist examines the internal parts of the eye and may use blood tests, skin tests, or radiography for follow-up examinations. When uveitis is associated with a different underlying disease, an ophthalmologist may even consult other specialists to check other organs.


There are several types of uveitis that are classified by where inflammation occurs in the uvea.

When inflammation of the uvea is confined to the iris, it is called Iritis. Inflammation of the iris may start suddenly, or develop over several months, and if the inflammation affects the iris and the ciliary body, it is called anterior uveitis or iridocyclitis. Inflammation of the posterior parts of the eye is called posterior uveitis or chorioretinitis, and its progress can be slower than other types.

In some cases, interstitial parts may also be involved, which are called interstitial uveitis.

If the progression of uveitis is slow, the eye may appear to be quite normal, and only with an accurate eye examination, inflammation in the eye can be determined.


Uveitis is a dangerous disease and may cause permanent damage to the eye. So it is recommended to treat this disease as soon as possible.

Uveitis treatment depends on its cause and includes topical, intravenous and oral medications, or intravenous injections.

 Corticosteroid and dilating eye drops (that enlarge the pupil) play a very important role in reducing inflammation and pain. In cases of severe inflammation, oral or intravenous drugs may be required.

 If uveitis is associated with an infection in other parts of the body, it is necessary to take appropriate antibiotics (according to your ophthalmologist instructions), in addition to corticosteroids.


Uveitis may be accompanied by the following complications:

• Glaucoma (Blue water)

• Cataract

• Creating intraocular adhesions

• Cystoid macular edema (Retinal thickening and damage to vision cells)


In these complications, medical treatment, surgery, intraocular injections or laser therapy may be necessary.

If you have red eyes that have not been improved, you should see an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.