Diabetic Patients and Ophthalmologic Examinations
Diabetic patients should be visited and checked up regularly by endocrinologists, nutritionists and ophthalmologists. Besides periodic ocular examinations and check-ups, to update regurarly information on the effects of diabetes on ocular health , they should be involved in different governmental or non-governmental diabetes organizations (NGO) and associations.
In the early stages of diabetes, the first and second years, there are no ocular symptoms. The ocular complications of diabetes are so minor and microscopic that we do not expect to detect severe ocular symptoms. After 5 to 10 years, ocular symptoms become noticeable and we should immediately start to treat diabetes and prevent its severe ocular complications. Patients who have suffered from diabetes for many years and have not done their periodic examination regularly are more likely to have sever ocular complications.
Epidemiological studies have shown that some complications of diabetes, such as Coronary Microvascular disease (small artery disease) and Pinguecula ( yellow bump on eye) are far less common and less severe in people who have well-controlled blood sugar level, blood lipids, blood pressure and hemoglobin A1C or " average of blood suger (glucose) levels over the previous three months". In diabetes type I, patients have more disorders than in diabetes type II. Dieting and weight loss are very important for treatment of the first group، and many of diabetes complications can be minimised or avoided by omitting oils and high- fat foods. Patients with type 2 diabetes should see an ophthalmologist as soon as possible if they experience any ocular symptoms. Most people suffer from "Silent Diabetes" and they are unaware that they have diabetes in its early or even middle phases. An ophthalmologist after complete eye exams or eye screening, diagnoses what kind of diabetes the patient has and then depending on it, determines next appointments for regular eye tests. Diabetic patients should see their ophthalmologists regularly and do their recommendations correctly.
Since many patients do not aware of their diabetes, a routine eye examination is very important to identify these patients who have silent( hidden) diabetes. In this situation when an ophthalmologist looks into the patients' eyes, can see new abnormal blood vessels ( increased In number) and spots of bleeding in their eyes that are sign of diabetes.